The Infrared Radiation Of The Hot Powder Generates Much

The Infrared Radiation Of The Hot Powder Generates Much Of The Brightness Seen Here From The Perseus Molecular Cloud: Spitzer observes the molecular cloud, NASA has released an impressive image of 600 light years, a massive stellar nursery in the constellations of North Perry.

NASA has launched an impressive image of the molecular cloud of Perius. A giant nursery star cloud 600 light years away in the constellations of northern Perius, captured by the agency’s Spitzer space telescope. The infrared radiation of the hot powder produces a much greater brightness than what is seen here from the parasitic molecular cloud.

Star clusters, like the bright spot on the left side of the image and produce even more infrared light and illuminate the surrounding clouds as the sun clouds in the sky at sunset. Very little dust seen here emits visible light. Therefore, is more clearly visible from infrared observatories such as Spitzer.

To the right of the image is NGC 1333, a nebula reflected about 1,000 light years from Earth. The proximity and strong infrared emission of NGC 1333 seemed to astronomers as soon as possible using some infrared means. Many young stars in the object are sending massive material to space.

 As soon as the material is removed, it is heated and applied to the surrounding interstellar medium. These factors cause the jet to radiate radially, and can be seen in the foreground study of NGC 1333. An annotated version of the Spitzer image of the molecular cloud of Perseus.

Other star clusters seen under NGC 1333 in this image have revealed a fascinating secret for astronomersThey include children, teenagers and stellar adults. The mixture of these compact times is very opposite. Although many star brothers can live in tight groups, the stars always grow and, as they grow, they move and fall apart.

Discovering such a compact mix of apparent times does not fit with current ideas about how stars evolve. This field tells astronomers that there is something we don’t understand about star formation. An astrophysicist at the NASA Infrared Science Archive at Caltech-IPAC. Louisa Ribul said.

The puzzle presented by this field is something that returns to astronomers. This is one of my favorite areas. Spitzer Legacy: one of NASA’s great observatories ends its mission NASA’s main eye in the infrared sky will close on January 30, after operating the design more than three times.

North American Nebula

The North American nebula that is familiar to visual observers (above) when viewed in infrared wavelengths with Spitzer (below). Black clouds become transparent, and bright stars of dusty buds are more visible.

An era in astronomy will end on January 30, 2020. On this date, NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope will send us its final observations, completing a remarkable exploration of the 16-year universe in infrared wavelengths.

Spitzer is one of four large observatories, a quartet of space telescopes launched by NASA in the 1990s and to unveil the multivalence universe from infrared to gamma rays in the early 2000s. Originally known as the Infrared Telescope Installation Shuttle (SIRTF).

The concept of the telescope came to light in 1971, when NASA was looking for payloads to fly on the space shuttle. In 1984, a free flight observatory transformed into an Earth orbiter, SIRTF underwent a series of (sometimes rigorous) refinancing in August 2003, before launching as a large observatory in a heliocentric orbit.

Although the public often lives in the Hubble (another great observatory) as the pinnacle of scientific discovery machines, astronomers already knew when planning Spitzer that at least detecting infrared wavelengths as visible waves was so much.

Infrared radiation reveals a dusty cocoon of stars that pierces the vast molecular clouds of our galaxyIt also cosmicly dissolves distant galaxies. In addition, because the universe extends from distant galaxies to wavelengths of light.

It is infrared, non-visible light, which allows us to look back on the first billion years of the universe. However, when mission planners first wondered what Spitzer would do, no planet was known that orbited stars other than the Sun, and the farthest objects known 10 to 11 billion years ago in the past of the universe.

They were now, Spitzer has not only seen exoplanets crossing in front of its stars, but has also detected its heat and brightness directly from the chemical components of its atmosphere. We felt that we were getting bold in the development of science programs.

Because after billions of years, Spitzer detected galaxies, because they were over 13 billion years old. In short, Spitzer greatly advanced our understanding of the universeSpitzer spins behind the Earth in its support orbit, advancing with time.

The space telescope worked with three instruments during its six-year cryogenic mission. During the subsequent “hot” and “beyond” phases of its mission, it has remained silent. Hiding in the shade of its solar panels, but can only use a device at this high temperature (around 27K).

As the ship moved away from Earth, the angle between its observation orientation and the data became more severe as it pointed its antennas towards Earth for the downlink. Solar panels would now have to bend away from the sun that mission planners designed to handle the ship.

The installation of the shuttle’s infrared telescope changed its name to Spitzer when the first scientific results were announced in December 2003. The name honored astronomer Lyman Spitzer, Jr., one of the first people to put a telescope in space in 1946.

And that strongly pressed both NASA and Congress to develop a space telescope. Spitzer originally observed medium to far infrared wavelengths ranging between 3.6 and 160 μm. For space sensitive infrared observations, telescopes and detectors are required to cool to a distance of absolute zero.

The previous infrared instruments launched a cold, but the team took a different approach with Spitzer: SIRTF launched with most of the telescopes at room temperature. Then replaced the spacecraft so that its solar panels protect the telescope from sunlight.

And let it cool to less than 40 kelvin (3233 ° C) by transferring its heat to a cool place. Radiant cooling is very effective in an auxiliary orbital orbit away from Earth’s brightness; Only after this initial cooling, the liquid helium cryogen was activated to reduce the detectors to less than 2K.

After the cryogen supply was depleted in 2009, radiation cooling allowed Spitzer to continue the observations in its two shorter wavelength bands at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, with loss of sensitivity. This second phase is known as Spitzer’s hot mission.

The inherent sensitivity of a cryogenic telescope in space, which allows access to the bright emission of the atmosphere or the entire free infrared spectrum of the telescope, allows the 33-inch Spitzer to be several times more sensitive than the 10-meter.

Based telescopes that operate on the same wavelength. Spitzer devices took advantage of this advantage by filling their focal planes (what was then) with large-format detector assemblies.

These matrices not only allowed efficient spectroscopy at wavelengths between 5 and 40 μm. But also allowed Spitzer to obtain both deep and rapid imaging studies in areas of vision greater than or equal to the angular size of the full moon.

These capabilities provided astronomers with a valuable window to the universe, ranging from the formation of stars and the exoplanet to the evolution of galaxies in cosmic time.

Wavelength Table

Four of NASA’s main space telescopes watched from far infrared to gamma rays. The Compton gamma ray observatory closed in 2000; The Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory and the Gamma Fermi Space Telescope now patrol that spectral range.

The formation of stars and planets

Although our Milky Way joined about 13 billion years ago, stars have formed throughout history since their early years, when the Sun and Earth formed about 4.6 billion years ago and today. We now understand that, in most cases, a star in formation gives rise to a planetary systemInfrared observations can look through dense clouds of interstellar dust.

Which are opaque at visible wavelengths. They can also record light emitted by objects that are too cold (below a few thousand degrees Kelvin) to produce visible visible light. Spitzer’s extensive studies on the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems exploit both properties.

Spitzer’s observations of wires placed in dusty gas (illustration, center) have generated many common compounds. The silicate minerals appear in the spectra of the protoplanetary disk (on the left, for the protostar HH46 IRS1).

While we have a clear view of the hot interior regions surrounding the star in the face. Star birth begins when a part of a dense cloud of gas and dust between stars collapses under its own gravity. The star in formation undergoes several stages.

 And each of which has a distinct infrared appearance, initially driven by the energy released by the observed material and then by the onset of nuclear fusion. Even when the nucleus rises, develops like a star, conservation of angular momentum suggests that some collapsed clouds form a protoplanteric disk that orbits a star.

Spitzer surveys have measured between hundreds and thousands of young stars in each of these stages. These observations have shown that the process of coagulation resulting from the planets begins a few million years after the formation of the disk.

Spitzer has also seen the things we know as life depends on being absorbed in the creation of planetary systems. The spectra of the face-to-face protoplanetary disk show us hot gases rich in water vapor within the few central astronomical units around the protostar 

At the same time, when we look sideways through a cold disk, we see absorption due to silicate dust, as well as revealing firms of frozen water and other ions that condense on the cold surfaces of silicate grains. These frozen grains may one day participate in the formation of a habitable world.


The study of exoplanets is one of the most interesting fields of contemporary astrophysical research. Astronomers have detected only a few dozen exoplanets directly, because it is very difficult to see the light of a planet in the glow of a nearby host star.

But exoplanets are so common that lies are seen in many orbits, passing first in front and then behind their stars from our point of view. This geometry gives Spitzer many ways to learn about the foreign world. One of the best known examples of this work is the TRAPPIST-1 planetary system.

After terrestrial observations hinting at a peculiar system, the 20-day Spitzer expedition captured seven Earth-sized planets in 2016, while crossing the face of the faint red star Trappist-1. Three of these exoplanets can be in the habitable zone of the star, where liquid water can be stably present on their surfaces.

The exact moment of Spitzer’s transit to these worlds allowed astronomers to determine if the gravitational pulls changed by the planets changed the exact moment each planet crossed in front of the star. The transformed time, in turn, revealed the mass of exoplanets.

As is known from the radius of the planets how much they travel, because we also know the density of the world. This makes Trappist-1 perhaps the best characterized planetary system outside the solar system. Astronomers can also use Spitzer to study the heat signatures of planets.

If a planet shines bright enough in the infrared. It will detect a small drop in the emission of the Spitzer system when it passes beyond its star, since the planet’s light is no longer visible. The depth of this eclipse tells us how much infrared radiation the planet emits.

When combined with the size of the planet, this measure indicates the temperature of the planet. Spitzer has measured planets as hot as 3000K and as cold as 700K, but cannot reach Earth’s temperature, which is around 300K.

Transit systems can also inform us about the atmosphere of exoplanets. Spitzer measurements can be combined with observations at shorter wavelengths to study the structure of the exoplanet’s atmosphere and even to diagnose the presence of clouds or fog.

Spitzer eclipse measurements in five infrared bands between 3.6 and 16 μm show that the GJ436B exoplanet. For example, has a much larger fraction of heavy elements in its gaseous environment than its host star.

GJ436B is approximately the size of Neptune, which, interestingly, shows a similar increase in heavier elements in relation to the Sun. When the 55 Canary E crosses in front of its star (in both diagrams of curve A, orbit and light).

The shape of the depression reveals the diameter of the planet. When the planet goes behind the star, its infrared brightness (C) disappears, revealing its brightness. Together, the two deposits tell astronomers the temperature of the planet.

However, the peak of the planet’s light curve (B) is compensated with respect to its eclipse, indicating that the hottest point is not in the middle of the day. This suggests that strong winds redistribute the heat of the stars across the planet.

In addition, we can study another aspect of a planet’s atmosphere by observing changes in its brightness in its orbit, as it shows us the different degrees of the side of its stars. This pattern, called the phase curve, shows how well the atmosphere redistributes the energy of the absorbed star.

When astronomers turned the Spitzer phase curve into a map of the temperature distribution for the Jovian – Mass HD 189733b exoplanet. The map showed that the hottest point on this exoplanet is not at the point where the star is directly above.

Instead, the access point travels about 30 degrees in length, presumably due to winds that move thousands of miles per hour before it can be irradiated. Spitzer has seen similar fluctuations on other planets, including 55 Canary Islands E.

On the contrary, in the case of the recently discovered Super Land LHS 3844B, the absence of such compensation, combined with a drastic drop in night temperatures with respect to the day. This exoplanet has the thinnest environment.

Although many telescopes have measured transits, Spitzer is almost alone in its ability to measure eclipses and phase curves. The previous discussion shows how scientists have used Spitzer and other telescopes to obtain remarkably detailed information about exoplanets, even if they were never observed directly.

The architectures of these systems are different from our own solar system. In fact, if our eight family planets orbited a nearby star at equal distances around the Sun, most of the techniques used to date would not have interested them.

However, there are notable similarities between our own solar system and exoplanetary systems. Systems with multiple planets are common. Silicate materials often resemble those seen in comets, such as Hel-Bop and Tempel.

Many systems show evidence of two bands of circumstantial dust, which are almost zero amount of dust and wells in the internal solar system. Appear Away In at least one case, the four giant planets orbit around Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune in the area between these two belts.

Neptune is between the two belts of the solar system. Finally, collisions between asteroids 100 km in size in the system, as a result of a temporary increase in the orbit of dust stars, are models of the violent events that shape the internal planets of our system.

Therefore, the evolution of the universe has in many cases led to conditions similar to those of our own system, including conditions that may be compatible with the development of life. Spitzer has also looked beyond the stars and exoplanets of our own galaxy, reaching billions of galaxies in the universe.

Understanding how galaxies form and evolve is a key question in astrophysics for many decades. Infrared observations have been applied to this question in two different domains: low and high redshift. This domain is divided into a redshift of 3 according to the retrospective time of approximately 11.5 billion years.

With a great advantage over previous missions in image sensitivity, mainly 24 μm, and its substantial spectroscopic capacity, Spitzer has investigated bright infrared galaxies in the last 11.5 billion years of the universe.

For these galaxies, any infrared emission at wavelengths greater than 5 μm is typically a warm glow of dust heated by young stars. This radiation is an indicator of the number of young stars, and from this brightness we can determine the rate of star formation.

Combined with multidimensional data from other devices, these results suggest that the star formed in the universe between 2.3 and 3.8 billion years after the Big Bang. It has been declining since then. Astronomers have largely referred to this period of meaningless stars like noon.

Many distant dust-wrapped galaxies we see are weak at visible wavelengths, even when they explode in infrared. Looking back in time, the concentration of galaxies that are strangely bright in the infrared sky. These systems are driven primarily by the formation of vigorous stars, with hundreds to thousands of solar gases converted into wires each year.

The sparkles of stars are almost completely obscured by dust. Therefore, the most active period of star formation in the universe is largely hidden in visible light and is only accessible with infrared observations. For more distant galaxies, those with 6 or more (or retrospective times of 12.5 billion years or more).

The light of the galaxy is so diffused that Spitzer cannot detect the brightness of the dust heated by the stars. For a red-shifting galaxy 6, an observation wavelength of 4.5 μm corresponds to an emitted wavelength of 0.64 μm. Which is located on the red edge of the visible band.

Therefore, for the high redshifts, Spitzer does not tell us about the thermal emission of galaxies, but about the light they see. This visible light comes from older stars in galaxies. Because these old stars dominate the stellar population of a galaxy.

We can use its light to measure the total mass of stars in the galaxy. Astronomers can compare Spitzer’s observations by Hubble or terrestrial instruments to extrapolate the ages of stars that produce ultraviolet. And visible light republished in the Spitzer domain from the expanses of the universe.

The observations of one of those galaxies to the red shift of 9.11 indicate that the stars are about 300 million years old. Since the Milky Way is observed at an interval of 13.2 billion years. The result suggests that the galaxy had an episode of star formation about 300 million years after the Big Bang.

These observations allow Spitzer to measure the evolution of galaxies in two ways. How much mass of galaxies it has at a given time and measuring how fast the galaxies grow forming stars. Compared to what we expect star mass to be based on birth rates.

The observations we make produce a satisfactory confluence of more than 12 billion years of cosmic history. A strong agreement suggests that with Spitzer, Hubble and large terrestrial telescopes, we are developing an accurate picture of the evolution and evolution of galaxies in the universe.

Delving into the past

The basic tool used to search for galaxies with high redshift is the Liman abandonment technique (S&T: April 2018, p. 14). This method uses the fact that neutral hydrogen atoms ionize by absorbing photons with wavelengths less than 0.09 μm. Then, the universe, which suffers from neutral hydrogen gas, is effectively opaque to such photons.

Therefore, if an image obtained at 0.5 μm represents a galaxy that is not seen at 0.4 μm. We infer that the redistributed wavelength of hydrogen ionization falls between the two bands, at approximately 0.45 μm. From there, we can calculate that the galaxy has a redshift of approximately 4.

Each circle of this combined visible and infrared image has a red-displaced galaxy of more than 7 that corresponds to a retrospective time of approximately 13 billion years. The box is a Spitzer image of one of the galaxies. The main image is part of the sky near the Draco-Ursa Major range, and most of the objects in the image are galaxies.

Infrared Jumps

Astronomers trace the history of star formation in 13 billion years (above). Starbirth reached the top of the universe about 10 billion years ago. When they combine all star formation over time.

Astronomers can make massive estimates of the universe in stars (black line, bottom graph), and this inference from observations of galaxy accumulation (data points, graphs below) ). Agree Density decreases as we look back in time because then fewer stars formed.

This broad search scope is now ending. Faced with a limited group of funds, NASA has chosen to withdraw Spitzer because the high operating costs inherent in its mission design made it less attractive than other operational missions competing for similar funds. They were living.

As Spitzer was taking a great leap of capacity as before, he was able to advance in astrophysical exploration during the last decade and a half. It is a constant lesson from the technological advances that drove astrophysics since the end of World War II.

We saw this with the first infrared missions, with space observatories, with twin telescopes, and in Chile with the very large telescope Quartet, along with a myriad of other devices, all of which, in one way or another, probed.

They have investigated the secrets of the infrared universe. Without a doubt, we will continue to see this with future terrestrial and space telescopes, with the next important infrared installation, the James Webb space telescope, which will be launched in 2021.

Although Spitzer sent its final data to Earth at the end of January 2020, the spacecraft will be sent to a safe orientation and shut down, allowing it to move silently towards Earth’s orbit. As we say goodbye, we anxiously observe the wonders of the universe revealed by Spitzer, discovered by future visionaries.

The wings of the STELLAR NURSERY COSMIC BUTTERFLY W40 are dusty and material rich in organic matter, which is extracted by the young group of stars in the heart of the nebula. This infrared mosaic combines four Spitzer images.

The farthest Galaxy Spitzer can see

Spitzer’s redshift range is currently set in heroic observations by Pascal Oesch (now University of Geneva) and 11.1 redshift by his colleagues in a galaxy. Spitzer observations at 4.5 μm required approximately 70 hours of detection. We see this galaxy when the universe was only 3% of its current age.

Further Studies

Werner and Peter Eisenhardt offer a more complete description of Spitzer Science in More things in the sky: how infrared astronomy is expanding our vision of the universe. Princeton University Press, 2019 (see book review on page 57).

Read The Spitzer Team Blog

This article first appeared in the January 2020 issue of Sky & Telescope with the title “Spitzer Legacy”. NASA’s infrared telescope says goodbye after 16 years of operation. The Spitzer infrared space telescope, considered one of NASA’s four “big observatories,” will close on January 31 after a 16-year run.

Examine some of the first galaxies seen so far, show how they evolved and formed stars, and separated the components of the exoplanet’s atmosphere and at the end of the tour-de-force, he discovered a group of planets the size of the Earth around a nearby star. It’s on a high note, producing great science until the end,” says Lisa Story-Lombardi.

Who worked on the mission for 20 years and now runs the Las Combres Observatory. Spitzer is sensitive to infrared light, photons are emitted by the glow of hot objects. Stars do not dominate in Spitzer images. Instead, the telescope observes the brightness of the galaxies and gas clouds found in the stars. It is also conducive to finding the furthest objects in the universe.

Whose light has extended from the expansion of the universe to infrared wavelengths. Earth’s atmosphere blocks most of the infrared light, so space telescopes are essential. A pair of infrared satellites preceded it. But Spitzer had the largest mirror (85 cm), more sophisticated equipment and state-of-the-art infrared sensors. However, this is not an easy trip in the classroom. Originally.

The space shuttle should have taken it during one-month observation missions, before the 1986 Challenger disaster caused a rethinking. After several redesigns, it was launched in 2003 on a Delta II rocket. He was the last of the great observatories to launch after the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Compton gamma-ray Observatory.

An innovation of Spitzer was passive cooling. Any hot object shines in bright infrared, including the Sunloc telescope, so it should cool down. The previous missions were completely cooled with a limited supply of cryogenic liquid. But Spitzer used passive methods (reflective materials and radiators) to cool most of the spacecraft to 40 Kelvin to expel heat into space.

It maintained a small supply of liquid helium to cool mirrors and equipment to 12 Kelvin or 5 Kelvin, depending on the equipment being used. Thomas Soifer, of the California Institute of Technology and director of the Spitzer Science Center, said – it is inefficient to make the mission fundamentally very profitable.

Another innovation was to put Spitzer in an orbit around the Sun, orbiting the Earth. The Earth and the Moon are bright sources of infrared light. So the distant access facilitated the cooling of the spacecraft. In addition, the Earth blocked less of the sky. Perform a very simple operation, says Soifer.

With a wide field of vision and fast mapping speeds, Spitzer soon imagined entire galaxies and entire regions of star formation. This created a 360 ° panorama of the Milky Way plane, which took thousands of hours to rebuild. An unexpected potential was the study of exoplanets, which was not discovered when Spitzer was designed.

The creative [astronomy] community said to try it, and it was incredibly successful, says Soifer. Spitzer led the study of the hot Jupiter, gas giants that orbit very close to their stars. After passing through the front of that planet and then behind its star. When Spitzer researchers see it, Spitzer researchers can estimate the temperature of the planet. And even map the temperature distribution on its surface.

He was also able to discover some exoplanet atmosphere compositions by the revealing frequencies of light that these molecules absorb when starlight passes through the gases. When the helium coolant dried up in 2009, Spitzer’s team realized that one of their three devices could still do valuable science at high temperatures of 28 Kelvin.

During this “Warm mission,” Spitzer stood out in the study of distant objects. Working as a team with Hubble (near his thirtieth birthday), Spitzer researchers have collected light from galaxies that were present for less than half a billion years after the Big Bang. How they could be done so fast remains a mystery.

No one would have guessed that these medium-sized telescopes could measure light and degrade the properties of the galaxy, says Soifer. But an unexpected discovery of exoplanets became the highlight of Spitzer’s last years. TRAPPIST-1 is a star not much larger than Jupiter 39 light years from Earth.

It is an ultrafresque red dwarf that shines at the perfect wavelength for Spitzer. In 2016, a small ground telescope detected bright falls due to the transit of three small planets in front of the star. But astronomers were more skeptical. Michael Gillon, from the University of Liège, asked Spitzer to follow the time and was given 25 hours to discover a system of seven heavily charged planets.

This is a very, very special example of what you can do with a class that can last a long time, says Soifer and now is the time to say goodbye. In a 2016 review of operational missions. NASA said Spitzer should continue to operate at least while the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is also watching, in operation, in infrared. But JWST was still late.

When its launch was delayed until 2021, NASA asked Spitzer for time. Soifer believes that Spitzer could do more, “but I’ve made peace with that,” he says. Storri-Lombardi says that everything will be impressed by JWST’s spectral capabilities. But says it lacks Spitzer’s wide vision mapping capabilities. Meanwhile, infrared astronomers must be patient. There will be a difference there, she says. Ghostly remains of a dead star shown in infrared light (photo).

Supernova Remnant HGH 3

The supernova HBH3 remnant glows with infrared light in this photo of NASA’s Spitzer space telescope. Infrared light with a wavelength of 3.6 μm is shown in blue, while low energy infrared light with a wavelength of 4.5 μm is shown in red. Spitzer captured this image in May 2010 and NASA launched it on August 2, 2018.

Red stripes of red gas emanating from an ancient starburst branch of the universe in this amazing new photograph of NASA’s Spitzer space telescope. This supernova remnant, known as HBH3, is one of the largest in the Milky Way galaxy and measures approximately 150 light years. It is also one of the oldest.

NASA officials said in a statement that the star that exploded to create this cosmic show did it 80,000 to 1 million years ago. HBH 3 was first detected in 1966 by scientists using a radio telescope. Which allows astronomers to look through interstellar dust and see low-frequency radiation that is not visible to the human eye.

The Spitzer space telescope sees the universe in infrared light. Which has a higher energy than radio waves but is still outside the visible spectrum. Gallery: infrared universe scene by the Spitzer telescope. The remains of HBH3 supernova shine with visible light. NASA officials said: The branches of the shiny material are the most likely molecular gases, which were hit by a shock wave generated by the supernova.

The energy of the explosion energized the molecules and made them radiate infrared light. Together with the supernova remnant, the image shows parts of some blurred white clouds known as W3, W4 and W5. These regions form a large complex of molecular clouds in the constellation Cassiopeia. To create this image of HBH3 and its surrounding clouds.

The researchers mapped the Spitzer Space Telescope data by providing color to two types of infrared light emitted by the field. Infrared light with a wavelength of 3.6 μm is shown in blue. While low energy infrared light with a wavelength of 4.5 μm is shown in red. The clouds of W3, W4 and W5 appear white because they emit both wavelengths of light.

 But the supernova remnant appears red because it emits only 4.5 μm infrared light. NASA’s Fermi gamma ray telescope also detected high-energy gamma rays from the cloudy region around HBH 3. This emission may come from gas in one of the neighboring star-forming regions, excited by powerful particles emitted by supernovae. Spitzer’s greatest discoveries in space for 15 years.

NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope has spent 15 years in space. In honor of this anniversary, Spitzer’s 15 greatest discoveries are painted in a gallery. Launched on August 25, 2003, in Solar Orbit. The Spitzer crawls behind the Earth and slowly moves away from our planet. Spitzer was the end of the four great NASA observatories to reach space.

Starting with a minimum primary mission of 2.5 years. NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope has gone well beyond its expected lifespan. Weather map in First Exoplanet, weather map in Exoplanet. Spitzer detects infrared light, often emitted by hot objects such as heat radiation.

While Spitzer’s mission designers never planned to use the observatory to study planets beyond our solar system, their infrared vision has proven to be an invaluable tool in the region. In May 2009, the scientists who used Spitzer’s data produced the first “meteorological map” of an exoplanet.

A planet that orbits a star that is not the Sun. This meteorological map of exoplanets changed the temperature on the surface of a planet gas giant, HD 189733b. In addition, studies have shown that roaring winds scourge the planet’s atmosphere. The image above shows an artist marking the planet. Hidden cradles of newborn stars.

Infrared light can, in most cases, penetrate clouds of gas and dust better than visible light. As a result, Spitzer has provided unprecedented views in the areas where stars are born. This image of Spitzer sees the newborn stars peeking out from under their blankets of dust in a tearful black cloud.

Called “Roe Off” by astronomers, this cloud is one of the closest star-forming regions of our own solar system. Located near the constellations of Scorpius and Ophiuchus in the sky, the nebula is about 410 light years from Earth. A growing galactic metropolis, growing galactic metropolis: In 2011, astronomers who used Spitzer detected a very distant collection of galaxies called COSMOS-AzTEC3.

From this group of galaxies, light traveled more than 12 billion years to reach Earth. Astronomers think that such objects, called proto-clusters, eventually evolve into clusters of modern galaxies, or groups of galaxies linked by gravity. COSMOS-AzTEC3 was the most remote proto-cluster of the time. This gives researchers a better idea of how galaxies have formed and evolved in the history of the universe.

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