Hot Super-Earth and Exo-Neptune revolve around a star like the Sun: Using data from NASA’s exoplanet prospecting satellite (TESS). Three terrestrial spectrographs, astronomers have discovered an ultra-short-lived super Earth and a planet of Neptune mass that orbits a nearby star similar to the Sun.
The new planet HD 213885 (also known as TOI-141 and TIC 403224672), a 3,800 million-year-old G-type star located 156 light years away. The inner planet, called HD 213885b (TOI-141b), is 1.74 times larger than Earth and 8.8 times heavier, making it a so-called super Earth.
Dr. of the Space Telescope Science Institute of NASA. Nestor Espinoza declared: “HD 213885B has a rocky bulk composition, which transforms this exoplanet into a super earth in good faith.” And his colleagues.
HD 213885B has an orbital period of only 1,008 days and a surface temperature of 1,855 ° C (3,371 ° F). The planet is similar to 55 Canary E, an extremely hot super Earth that orbits a G-type star about 42 light years from Earth.
“Astronomers, radius, mass and stellar radiation of HD 213885b, given our data, similar to the 55 E Canario, make this exoplanet a good objective to demonstrate comparative exoplanetology in the short term, which is much more irradiated. the super Earth, ”the astronomers said.
The outer planet in the system, called HD 213885c (TOI-141c), has a mass of 19.9 times the mass of the Earth and is similar to Neptune in the solar system. It orbits the original star once every 4.78 days and has a surface temperature of 922 ° C (1,692 ° F).
“The HD 213885 system is very interesting from the point of view of future atmospheric characterization, which is the second brightest star to house a super-Earth transmitting the super-Earth (being the brightest star, in fact, 55 Cancri), “said Dr.. Espinoza and co-authors declared.
Your article will be published in the monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. The exoplanet orbits its star every 18 hours. A hot Jupiter has been quickly found: in the last decade, thousands of planets have been discovered beyond our solar system.
These planets give astronomers the opportunity to study planetary systems that have defined our previous assumptions. This includes particularly large-scale gas giants that are several times the size of Jupiter (also known as “superjupiter”). And then there are those who are particularly close to their sun, also known as “hot-jupiters.
Traditional knowledge suggests that gas giants should be far from their sun and have a long orbital period that can last a decade or more. However, in a recent study, an international team of astronomers announced the detection of a “hot jupiter” with the shortest orbital period to date.
Located 1,060 light years from Earth, this planet (NGTS-10b) takes only 18 hours to complete a full orbit of its Sun. The planet was discovered by the Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS), as stated by the team in their study, which recently appeared in the monthly announcement of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS).
The telescope, located in the Paranal Observatory of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Chile, is used by a consortium of European universities and agencies that hunt extrasolar planets.
Artistic concept of an exoplanet the size of Jupiter that is relatively close to its star (also known as Hot Jupiter. In particular, NGTS is related to the search for super-Earth shaped exoplanets around Neptune and luminous stars. To date, most large planets that have short orbit periods are hot Jupiter.
Which is easier to detect in relation to the observer (also known as the transit method) that passes through its star, especially with telescopes terrestrial. Dr. James McCormack, a postdoctoral researcher at the Center for Exoplanets and Habitability at Warwick University and a member of the NGTS, was also the lead author of the study.
As he explained by email to Universe Today: The Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS) is a robotic exoplanet survey designed to discover the exclonset of Neptune’s size. It consists of 12 identical 20 cm telescopes and is located in the European Southern Observatory in Chile.
We measured a tiny drop (less than 0.1%) in light intensity as a planet crosses its stellar face. To date, we have found 9 new exoplanets in transit, including 1 planet similar to Neptune (NGTS-4B). Most hot jupiter discovered have an orbital period of approximately 10 days.
Which makes NGTS-4B particularly special. While hot ultra-short period jupiters (those with orbital periods of less than twenty-four hours) are theoretically the easiest to detect, but have been extremely rare. To date, only 6 of the 337 hot jupiter discovered have an orbital period shorter than one day.
An exoplanet on the face of its star, which demonstrates one of the methods used to find planets beyond our solar system. Using NGTS data, McCarmack and his colleagues determined that the NGTS-10B is approximately the same size as Jupiter but approximately twice as large.
This host star, NGTS-10, is a relatively active orange dwarf K5V main sequence star. Which means it is a bit smaller, lighter and colder than our Sun. But given how close the NGTS-10B is to its orbit, the planet receives all the heat and radiation it can handle!
With an orbital period of only 18 hours, NGTS-10b is not just the shortest planet seen to date. It also places it on a very short list of planets that are leading candidates for the study of the tides between the stars and a planet. As McCormack explained:
These nearby giant planets are expected to have happy interactions with their stars and eventually enter the star and be consumed. Therefore, we are very fortunate to capture planets like NGTS-10B, because they are spiraling, or the tidal interaction processes are less efficient than we expected and ultra-short period planets are long in close segregation. It can survive until.
In summary, NGTS-10B has a class that places it within 1.46 Roc 0.18 Roche Ready of its host star, which means it is slowly moving inward. At the rate they calculated, McCormack and his team estimated that their orbital period would be reduced to 7 seconds over the next decades and, finally, the planet would be shattered by the NGTS-10.
The artist’s impression of JG436b, a warm Neptune located about 33 light years from Earth. Sincerely, Courtesy of the Space Telescope Science Institute. McMormack said: If the tidal contact processes are efficient, the NGTS-10B will spiral slowly over the next 38 million years and be consumed.
In the next decade, McCarmack and his colleagues hope to make more observations on the NGTS-10B to see if it shows signs of a spiral towards its star. Direct measurement of the fall rate (should be any) will allow astronomers to impose strict restrictions on the efficiency of tidal interactions between stars and planets.